Taqwa - Fear of Allah
Ibn Juzayy said in his dictionary of terms from the introduction to
"Taqwa's meaning is fear, clinging to obedience to Allah and abandoning
disobedience to Him. It is the sum of all good."
And in his commentary:
We will discuss taqwa in three sections.
Concerning its benefits derived from the Qur'an, and they are fifteen:
- Guidance, because of His words "guidance for the muttaqeen (the
people of taqwa)";
- Help because of His words "Truly, Allah is with the people who have
- Close friendship [with Allah] because of His words, "Allah is the
close friend of the muttaqeen";
- Love because of His words, "Truly Allah loves the muttaqeen";
- Covering over [of wrong actions] because of His words, "If you have
taqwa of Allah He will make for you a discrimination and He will cover
over for you your wrong actions";
- A way out from unhappiness, and provision from where one does not
expect because of His words, "Whoever has taqwa of Allah He will make
a way out for him and provide him from where he does not expect";
- Facilitation of affairs because of His words, "Whoever has taqwa
of Allah He will make ease for him in his affair";
- Full covering over of wrong actions and magnification of rewards
because of His words, "Whoever has taqwa of Allah He will cover over
his wrong actions and magnify a reward for him";
- Acceptance of actions because of His words, "Allah only accepts
from the people of taqwa";
- Success because of His words, "Have taqwa of Allah in order that
you might succeed";
- Good news because of His words "For them there is good news in this
world and in the next";
- Entrance into the Garden because of His words "Truly, there are
for the people of taqwa with their Lord Gardens of bliss";
- Salvation from the Fire because of His words "Then We will save
the ones who had taqwa".
There are ten things which awaken taqwa:
- Fear of punishment in the next life;
- Fear [of punishment in] this life;
- Hope of worldly reward;
- Hope of the reward of the next world;
- Fear of the reckoning;
- Shyness and bashfulness before the gaze of Allah, and this is the
station of fearful watchfulness (muraqabah);
- Showing gratitude for His blessings by obeying
- Knowledge, because of His words, "They only fear Allah, of His slaves,
the ones who have knowledge";
- Exalting and honouring His majesty, and it is the station of awe;
- Sincerity in love because of the words of the one who said:
"You disobey God while you make apparent that you love Him,
by my life, in analogy is a marvel.
If your love were sincere you would obey Him,
the lover towards the one he loves is obedient."
And to Allah be attributed the good of the one who said:
"She said, and she had asked about the state of her lover,
sake, describe him and do not omit nor exceed!'
I said, 'If he had feared death from thirst,
had said, "Stop! don't approach the water!" then he would not have approached.'"
The Third Section
There are five degrees of taqwa:
- That the slave should protect himself from kufr (covering over the
truth), and that is the station of Islam;
- That he should protect himself from acts of disobedience and forbidden
things, and it is the station of turning or repentance (tawbah);
- That he should protects himself from doubtful matters, and that
is the station of caution or carefulness (wara');
- That he should protect himself from even those things that are permitted,
and that is the station of doing without (zuhd);
- That he should protect himself from the presence of other than Allah
in his heart, and it is the presence of witnessing (mushahadah).
That ends what Ibn Juzayy al-Kalbi wrote on taqwa.
8 January, 2005 11:09